Purpose: Two studies were conducted to assess the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties and tolerability of edaravone in Japanese subjects with mild to moderate hepatic impairment or normal hepatic functioning (study 1), and in white subjects with severe hepatic impairment compared to subjects with normal hepatic functioning (study 2).
Methods: Studies 1 and 2 were multicenter, open-label, single-dose studies that included subjects aged 18-75 years. In study 1, subjects were stratified into 3 different groups of hepatic functioning according to Child-Pugh score: mild hepatic impairment, score 5 or 6 (n = 8); moderate hepatic impairment, score 7-9 (n = 6); or normal hepatic functioning (n = 8). In study 2, subjects had severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score 10-14; n = 6) or normal hepatic functioning (n = 6). In both studies, all subjects were given edaravone 30 mg IV infused over 60 min on the morning of day 1. Blood samples for use in PK analyses were collected from days 1-3. The PK properties (Cmax, AUC0-last, and AUC0-∞) of edaravone and its sulfate conjugate metabolite were measured.
Findings: In study 1, the geometric least-squares mean (GLSM) Cmax and AUC0-∞ of unchanged edaravone were 1.203- and 1.065-fold greater, respectively, in subjects with mild hepatic impairment versus normal hepatic functioning, and were 1.235- and 1.142-fold greater, respectively, in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment versus normal hepatic functioning. In study 2, GLSM Cmax and AUC0-∞ of unchanged edaravone were 1.203- and 1.190-fold greater, respectively, in subjects with severe hepatic impairment versus normal hepatic functioning. In both studies the AUC0-last, AUC0-∞, unbound AUC from time zero to infinity, and Cmax of unchanged edaravone were increased slightly with increases in Child-Pugh classification. No adverse events considered related to edaravone were reported, except for 1 case of sinus bradycardia in a subject with normal hepatic functioning in study 2. The event was moderate in severity, considered as possibly related to edaravone, and resolved during the study.
Implications: Mild to moderate and severe hepatic impairment had no apparent clinically significant effects on the PK profile of edaravone in Japanese and white subjects, respectively, relative to individuals with normal hepatic functioning, and there were no notable tolerability concerns. Thus, edaravone dosage adjustments are unlikely to be needed in edaravone-treated patients with mild to moderate and severe hepatic impairment. ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT03289234 (mild to moderate hepatic impairment) and NCT03664544 (severe hepatic impairment).
Keywords: edaravone; hepatic insufficiency; mild–moderate; pharmacokinetics; severe; tolerability.
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