Peritoneal Dialysis Use and Practice Patterns: An International Survey Study

Am J Kidney Dis. 2021 Mar;77(3):315-325. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2020.05.032. Epub 2020 Aug 12.


Rationale & objective: Approximately 11% of people with kidney failure worldwide are treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD). This study examined PD use and practice patterns across the globe.

Study design: A cross-sectional survey.

Setting & participants: Stakeholders including clinicians, policy makers, and patient representatives in 182 countries convened by the International Society of Nephrology between July and September 2018.

Outcomes: PD use, availability, accessibility, affordability, delivery, and reporting of quality outcome measures.

Analytical approach: Descriptive statistics.

Results: Responses were received from 88% (n=160) of countries and there were 313 participants (257 nephrologists [82%], 22 non-nephrologist physicians [7%], 6 other health professionals [2%], 17 administrators/policy makers/civil servants [5%], and 11 others [4%]). 85% (n=156) of countries responded to questions about PD. Median PD use was 38.1 per million population. PD was not available in 30 of the 156 (19%) countries responding to PD-related questions, particularly in countries in Africa (20/41) and low-income countries (15/22). In 69% of countries, PD was the initial dialysis modality for≤10% of patients with newly diagnosed kidney failure. Patients receiving PD were expected to pay 1% to 25% of treatment costs, and higher (>75%) copayments (out-of-pocket expenses incurred by patients) were more common in South Asia and low-income countries. Average exchange volumes were adequate (defined as 3-4 exchanges per day or the equivalent for automated PD) in 72% of countries. PD quality outcome monitoring and reporting were variable. Most countries did not measure patient-reported PD outcomes.

Limitations: Low responses from policy makers; limited ability to provide more in-depth explanations underpinning outcomes from each country due to lack of granular data; lack of objective data.

Conclusions: Large inter- and intraregional disparities exist in PD availability, accessibility, affordability, delivery, and reporting of quality outcome measures around the world, with the greatest gaps observed in Africa and South Asia.

Keywords: Epidemiology; RRT modality; access to health care; affordability of health care; end-stage renal disease (ESRD); global survey; health care delivery; health care disparities; health policy; home dialysis; international differences; kidney failure; peritoneal dialysis (PD); renal replacement therapy (RRT).

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administrative Personnel
  • Cost Sharing
  • Costs and Cost Analysis
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Delivery of Health Care
  • Developed Countries
  • Developing Countries
  • Health Expenditures
  • Health Policy
  • Health Services Accessibility*
  • Humans
  • Internationality*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy*
  • Nephrologists
  • Nephrology
  • Outcome Assessment, Health Care
  • Patient Reported Outcome Measures
  • Peritoneal Dialysis*
  • Physicians
  • Practice Patterns, Physicians'*
  • Quality of Health Care
  • Surveys and Questionnaires