Probiotics are viable and useful microorganisms, which are beneficial factors for human and animal health by altering their microbial flora. Most of the probiotics belong to a large group of bacteria in the human gastrointestinal tract. There are several clinical shreds of evidence that show anti-carcinogenic effects of probiotics through altering digestive enzymes, inhibition of carcinogenic agents, and modulating the immune responses in experimental animals. Many studies have been performed to evaluate the potential effectiveness of probiotics in treating or preventing neurological diseases such as MS and novel treatment modality for T1D. The purpose of this study is to have an overview on probiotic microorganisms and to review the previous researches on the effects of probiotics on health through currently available literatures. The study was performed using following keywords; Probiotics, Cancer, Immune system, Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Diabetes mellitus. PubMed/Medline, Clinicaltrials.gov, Ovid, Google Scholar, and Reaxcys databases used to find the full text of related articles. According to the current available data on probiotics and related health-promoting benefits, it seems that, consumption of probiotics can lead to the prevention and reduction the risk of cancer, diabetes, and multiple sclerosis. Although for the better and more decisive conclusion, there is a need to larger sample size clinical studies with more focus on the safety of these biological agents and their possible beneficial effects on different population.
Keywords: Cancer; Diabetes mellitus; Immune Responses; Multiple sclerosis; Probiotics; Treatment.