Epidemiology, Outcomes, and Associated Factors of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction-Confirmed Cases in the San Pedro Sula Metropolitan Area, Honduras

Clin Infect Dis. 2021 May 18;72(10):e476-e483. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa1188.

Abstract

Background: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has caused substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Few reports exist in Latin America, a current epicenter of transmission. Here, we aim to describe the epidemiology and outcomes associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Honduras.

Methods: Baseline clinical and epidemiological information of SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction-confirmed cases detected between 17 March-4 May in the San Pedro Sula Metropolitan area was collected; for hospitalized cases, clinical data were abstracted. Logistic regression models were fit to determine the factors associated with hospitalization.

Results: We identified 877 COVID-19 cases, of which 25% (n = 220) were hospitalized. The 19-44-year age group (57.8%) and males (61.3%) were predominant in overall COVID-19 cases. Of the cases, 34% (n = 299) had at least 1 preexisting medical condition. Individuals aged 45-69 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.85-5.76) or ≥70 years (aOR = 9.12; 95% CI, 5.24-15.86), of male sex (aOR = 1.72; 95% CI, 1.21-2.44), and those with a preexisting condition (aOR = 2.12; 95% CI, 1.43-3.14) had higher odds of hospitalization. Of inpatients, 50% were hospitalized more than 7 days. The median length of hospitalization was 13 days (interquartile range [IQR], 8-29) among individuals aged 19-44 years, and 17 days (IQR, 11-24.6) among those aged 45-69. Of the fatal cases, 42% occurred among adults under 60 years old.

Conclusions: Our findings show that a high proportion of COVID-19 cases in Honduras occurred among younger adults, who also constituted a significant proportion of severe and fatal cases. Preexisting conditions were associated with severe outcomes independently from age and were highly prevalent in Honduran COVID-19 cases.

Keywords: COVID-19; Latin America; SARS-CoV-2; associated factors; epidemiology.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • COVID-19*
  • Honduras / epidemiology
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pandemics
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Young Adult