Background: Diabetic neuropathy increases risk of cardiovascular disease, peripheral artery disease, foot amputation and overall mortality. Not only hyperglycaemia induced nerve damage is harder to repair using currently approved medications, but also, the use of these agents is often limited by the extent of pain relief provided and side effects.
Methodology: In this prospective, open-label, pilot study, 20 type-2 diabetes mellitus patients (male/female=13/7, mean age- 56.1±8.04 years), meeting inclusion/exclusion criteria, were treated with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, Teneligliptin, 20mg once a day for three months. Efficacy parameters: Sudomotor function (Sudoscan score); parasympathetic dysfunction assessed using Ewing's criteria i.e. heart rate response to -standing (HRS), -valsalva (HRV) and -deep breath (HRD); sympathetic dysfunction assessed as blood pressure response to -standing (BPS) and -handgrip (BPH); ankle brachial index (ABI), vibration perception threshold (VPT), C-reactive protein, glycemic profile and health related quality of life (HRQoL); and, tolerability parameters: complete blood count, liver function tests, serum creatinine, thyroid stimulating hormone, QT- interval and serum vitamin B12 levels, were measured.
Results: There was no statistical difference in BMI, SBP, DBP, HRD, BPH and all safety parameters. After 12 weeks treatment, there was improvement in HRS (p<0.01) and HRV (p<0.01), but not in HRD (p=0.12). BPS was significantly lowered (p <0.01), but not the BPH (p =0.06). Sudoscan score was increased, while VPT was significantly decreased (both p<0.01).
Conclusion: Teneligliptin not only improves the glycemic status but also improves sudomotor function, peripheral and autonomic neuropathy, and reduces vascular inflammation in type 2 diabetes.
Keywords: DPP-4 inhibitor; Teneligliptin; cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy; diabetic neuropathy; peripheral neuropathy; sudoscan.