Mathematical modeling analysis of hepatic uric acid disposition using human sandwich-cultured hepatocytes

Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2020 Oct;35(5):432-440. doi: 10.1016/j.dmpk.2020.06.006. Epub 2020 Jun 22.


Uric acid is biosynthesized from purine by xanthine oxidase (XO) mainly in the liver and is excreted into urine and feces. Although several transporters responsible for renal and intestinal handling of uric acid have been reported, information on hepatic transporters is limited. In the present study, we studied quantitative contribution of transporters for hepatic handling of uric acid by mathematical modeling analysis in human sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (hSCH). Stable isotope-labeled hypoxanthine, hypoxanthine-13C2,15N (HX), was incubated with hSCH and formed 13C2,15N-labeled xanthine (XA) and uric acid (UA) were measured by LC-MS/MS time dependently. Rate constants for metabolism and efflux and uptake transport across sinusoidal and bile canalicular membranes of HX, XA and UA were estimated in the presence of inhibitors of XO and uric acid transporters. An XO inhibitor allopurinol significantly decreased metabolisms of HX and XA. Efflux into bile canalicular lumen was negligible and sinusoidal efflux was considered main efflux pathway of formed UA. Transporter inhibition study highlighted that GLUT9 strongly and MRP4 intermediately contribute to the sinusoidal efflux of UA with minor contribution of NPT1/4. Modeling analysis developed in the present study should be useful for quantitative prediction of uric acid disposition in liver.

Keywords: Liver; Mathematical modeling; Sandwich-cultured hepatocytes; Transporter; Uric acid.

MeSH terms

  • Cells, Cultured
  • Hepatocytes / cytology
  • Hepatocytes / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Models, Biological*
  • Uric Acid / metabolism*


  • Uric Acid