Introduction: Exclusive e-cigarette use has been shown to be associated with reduced levels of respiratory symptoms relative to smoking combustible cigarettes; this association has been less frequently studied in smokers using advanced-generation e-cigarette devices. Advanced-generation devices generate denser vapor than either early generation or pod-style devices, and engender longer inhalations; these vaping topography patterns may contribute to respiratory symptoms.
Methods: In a single-session, cross-sectional study of exclusive e-cigarette users (N = 59) and dual users of e-cigarettes and cigarettes (N = 54), participants completed questionnaires, including the American Thoracic Society Questionnaire (ATSQ) and were videotaped vaping their own device in the lab for 1 hour. Using a hierarchical regression method, we examined whether topography variables, level of nicotine concentration used in their e-cigarette device in the past month, e-cigarette dependence, amount of e-cigarette use in the past month, and smoking status (any smoking in the last month vs. none) predicted ATSQ score severity.
Results: There was a significant mean difference in ATSQ score across smoking status, with greater ATSQ scores for vapers who also smoked cigarettes (19.0, SD = 6.7) than for exclusive vapers (13.4, SD = 5.3). In the final model, of the predictors of interest, only cigarette smoking status predicted significantly greater ATSQ scores (overall F = 2.51, p = .006; R2 = .26; smoking status β = 0.39, p < .0001).
Conclusions: Findings suggest that differences in respiratory symptoms between dual and exclusive e-cigarette users appear to be attributable to combustible cigarette smoking, rather than more intense or frequent e-cigarette use across groups.
Implications: In this comparison of exclusive advanced-generation vape device users (N = 59) versus dual users of these devices and combustible cigarettes (N = 54), we set out to determine the extent to which smoking status and e-cigarette use variables predicted self-reported respiratory symptom severity. We found that dual users showed greater respiratory symptom severity (ATSQ scores) than exclusive vapers. Despite examining vaping topography and other variables, smoking status and race were the only significant predictor of respiratory symptoms. We conclude that combustible cigarette use, not individual vaping topography, likely accounts for differences in respiratory symptoms between dual users and exclusive vapers.
© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.