A Gene Expression Analysis of M1 and M2 Polarized Macrophages

Methods Mol Biol. 2020:2184:131-144. doi: 10.1007/978-1-0716-0802-9_10.


Macrophages are professional innate immune cells that are broadly disseminated throughout the body, shape various innate and adaptive immune responses, and play crucial roles in inflammation, homeostasis, wound healing, and tissue remodelling. According to their surrounding microenvironments, macrophages can differentiate themselves in different phenotypes. Over the last two decades, gene expression profiling has been used to decipher new transcripts associated with macrophage phenotypes. This chapter outlines protocols used to isolate and culture murine macrophages and how they can be "polarized" to obtain a specific phenotype. Furthermore, we describe a protocol for gene expression profiling using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), a high-standard technology in the field of gene expression.

Keywords: Gene expression; Innate immunity; Macrophage polarization; Murine macrophages; qPCR.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Differentiation / genetics
  • Cell Polarity / genetics*
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Cellular Microenvironment / genetics
  • Gene Expression / genetics*
  • Gene Expression Profiling / methods
  • Inflammation / genetics
  • Macrophage Activation / genetics
  • Macrophages / physiology*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Phenotype
  • RAW 264.7 Cells

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