Epidemiologic and clinical features of patients with COVID-19 in Brazil

Einstein (Sao Paulo). 2020;18:eAO6022. doi: 10.31744/einstein_journal/2020ao6022. Epub 2020 Aug 14.
[Article in Portuguese, En]

Abstract

Objective This study describes epidemiological and clinical features of patients with confirmed infection by SARS-CoV-2 diagnosed and treated at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein , which admitted the first patients with this condition in Brazil. Methods In this retrospective, single-center study, we included all laboratory confirmed COVID-19 cases at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein , São Paulo, Brazil, from February until March 2020. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiological data were analyzed. Results A total of 510 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 were included in this study. Most patients were male (56.9%) with a mean age of 40 years. A history of a close contact with a positive/suspected case was reported by 61.1% of patients and 34.4% had a history of recent international travel. The most common symptoms upon presentation were fever (67.5%), nasal congestion (42.4%), cough (41.6%) and myalgia/arthralgia (36.3%). Chest computed tomography was performed in 78 (15.3%) patients, and 93.6% of those showed abnormal results. Hospitalization was required for 72 (14%) patients and 20 (27.8%) were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. Regarding clinical treatment, the most often used medicines were intravenous antibiotics (84.7%), chloroquine (45.8%) and oseltamivir (31.9%). Invasive mechanical ventilation was required by 65% of Intensive Care Unit patients. The mean length of stay was 9 days for all patients (22 and 7 days for patients requiring or not intensive care, respectively). Only one patient (1.38%) died during follow-up. Conclusion These results may be relevant for Brazil and other countries with similar characteristics, which are starting to deal with this pandemic.

Objetivo: Descrever as características epidemiológicas e clínicas de pacientes com infecção confirmada pelo SARS-CoV-2, diagnosticados e tratados no Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, que admitiu os primeiros pacientes com essa condição no Brasil.

Métodos: Neste estudo retrospectivo, de centro único, incluímos todos os casos com confirmação laboratorial de COVID-19 no Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, em São Paulo (SP) de fevereiro a março de 2020. Foram analisados dados demográficos, clínicos, laboratoriais e radiológicos.

Resultados: Foram incluídos 510 pacientes com diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19. A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo masculino (56,9%), com média de idade de 40 anos. Foi relatada história de contato próximo com um caso positivo/suspeito por 61,1% dos pacientes, e 34,4% tinham história de viagens internacionais recentes. Os sintomas mais comuns foram febre (67,5%), congestão nasal (42,4%), tosse (41,6%) e mialgia/artralgia (36,3%). A tomografia computadorizada de tórax foi realizada em 78 (15,3%) pacientes, e 93,6% deles apresentaram resultados anormais. A hospitalização foi necessária para 72 (14%) pacientes, e 20 (27,8%) foram admitidos na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. Quanto ao tratamento clínico, os medicamentos mais utilizados foram antibióticos intravenosos (84,7%), cloroquina (45,8%) e oseltamivir (31,9%). A ventilação mecânica invasiva foi necessária em 65% dos pacientes na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. O tempo médio de internação foi 9 dias para todos os pacientes (22 e 7 dias para pacientes que necessitaram ou não de cuidados intensivos, respectivamente). Apenas um (1,38%) paciente morreu durante o acompanhamento.

Conclusão: Estes resultados podem ser relevantes para o Brasil e outros países com características semelhantes, que começaram a lidar com essa pandemia.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Betacoronavirus
  • Brazil
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Coronavirus Infections / diagnosis*
  • Coronavirus Infections / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pandemics
  • Pneumonia, Viral / diagnosis*
  • Pneumonia, Viral / epidemiology*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Young Adult

Supplementary concepts

  • COVID-19
  • severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2