Overlapping myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) are clonal hematopoietic disorders with features of myelodysplasia and myeloproliferation. The only well-characterized MDS/MPN in children is juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, an aggressive disorder of infants and toddlers. The biochemical hallmark of this disease is hyperactivation of the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway caused by mutations in Ras pathway genes in more than 90% of patients. Translocations involving receptor tyrosine kinases have been identified in rare cases. Here, we report a 2-year-old patient who presented with MDS/MPN driven by a cytogenetically cryptic NUP98-NSD1 fusion, a translocation thought to exclusively occur in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
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