Anicteric Leptospirosis-Associated Meningitis in a Tropical Urban Environment, Brazil

Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Sep;26(9):2190-2192. doi: 10.3201/eid2609.191001.


While studying aseptic meningitis in Salvador, Brazil, we diagnosed anicteric leptospirosis in 1.7% (5/295) of patients hospitalized for aseptic meningitis. Leptospirosis-associated meningitis patients had lower mean cerebrospinal fluid cell counts and protein than other-cause aseptic meningitis (p<0.05). Clinicians must consider leptospirosis-associated meningitis in appropriate clinical-epidemiologic contexts.

Keywords: Brazil; aseptic meningitis; case series; leptospiral meningitis; leptospirosis; meningitis/encephalitis; neuroleptospirosis; viral meningitis; viruses.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Brazil
  • Humans
  • Leptospirosis* / diagnosis
  • Leptospirosis* / epidemiology
  • Meningitis* / diagnosis
  • Meningitis* / epidemiology
  • Meningitis, Aseptic*