Risk-Based Estimate of Human Fungal Disease Burden, China

Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Sep;26(9):2137-2147. doi: 10.3201/eid2609.200016.


We conducted a systematic literature review to obtain risk population-based fungal disease incidence or prevalence data from China. Data were categorized by risk factors and extrapolated by using most recent demographic figures. A total of 71,316,101 cases (5.0% of the population) were attributed to 12 risk factors and 17 fungal diseases. Excluding recurrent Candida vaginitis (4,057/100,000 women) and onychomycosis (2,600/100,000 persons), aspergillosis (317/100,000 persons) was the most common problem; prevalence exceeded that in most other countries. Cryptococcal meningitis, an opportunistic infection, occurs in immunocompetent persons almost twice as often as AIDS. The pattern of fungal infections also varies geographically; Talaromyces marneffei is distributed mainly in the Pearl River Basin, and the Yangtze River bears the greatest histoplasmosis burden. New host populations, new endemic patterns, and high fungal burdens in China, which caused a huge impact on public health, underscore the urgent need for building diagnostic and therapeutic capacity.

Keywords: China; burden; fungal disease; fungi; prevalence; risk factor.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • China / epidemiology
  • Cost of Illness
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Mycoses* / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Talaromyces*

Supplementary concepts

  • Talaromyces marneffei