A lung biopsy specimen was obtained from a 10-year-old boy with cystic fibrosis and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Light microscopy revealed a marked inflammatory process that was largely bronchocentric. Infiltrating cells included lymphocytes, plasma cells, monocytes, and numerous eosinophils. Elastin layers were intact in blood vessels and markedly disrupted in bronchioles. By immunofluorescent, major basic protein was demonstrated in eosinophils, was freely deposited outside of eosinophils, especially in the interlobular septum, and was taken up by macrophages. A number of lymphocytes stained positively for IgE. Through an immunoperoxidase stain, septate hyphae of Aspergillus were clearly observed in the lung parenchyma. A significant increase in interleukin-2 positive-staining T cells was observed with an approximate 2:1 ratio of helper to suppressor cells. The use of newer immunohistologic techniques has enabled us to gain additional insights into the pathogenesis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.