Recent studies have linked regular physical activity with reduced likelihood of developing coronary heart disease. Even low- and moderate-intensity exercise such as walking, when carried out consistently, is associated with important cardiovascular health benefits. Walking has also been shown to reduce anxiety and tension and aid in weight loss. Regular walking may help improve cholesterol profile, help control hypertension, and slow the process of osteoporosis. Recent physiological studies have demonstrated that brisk walking provides strenuous enough exercise for cardiovascular training in most adults. A recently developed submaximal 1-mile walk test provides a simple and accurate means for estimating aerobic capacity and guiding exercise prescription. These new insights and tools will assist the clinician in the prescription of safe and effective walking programs.