Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the conjunctival microbiota of shelter-housed cats with time, upper respiratory disease (URD) and famciclovir administration.
Methods: Cats were assigned to treatment groups on shelter entry. Healthy cats or cats with URD received ~30 mg/kg or ~90 mg/kg of famciclovir or placebo PO q12h for 7 days, or were untreated. Swabs were collected from ventral conjunctival fornices prior to (day 1) and immediately after (day 8) the treatment period. Microbiota analysis was conducted on 124 randomly selected swabs from healthy (56 swabs) or URD-affected (68 swabs) cats. Following DNA extraction and amplification of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene, sequences were assembled into operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Over-represented OTUs (as determined by linear discriminate analysis effect size), alpha and beta diversity, and median relative abundance of known feline ocular surface pathogens were assessed for the entire population and in 10 clinically relevant subpopulations of cats.
Results: Bacteria from 33 phyla and 70 genera were identified. Considering all cats, median relative abundance of Mycoplasma increased from day 1 to day 8, while Proteobacteria decreased. Community membership and structure (beta diversity) differed between days 1 and 8 for all famciclovir-treated cats (regardless of health status or dose) and healthy or URD-affected cats (regardless of famciclovir dose). Differences in taxonomic diversity within a sample (alpha diversity) between day 1 and day 8 were not detected in any subpopulations.
Conclusions and relevance: Within 1 week of shelter entry, there were significant changes in community structure and membership of the feline conjunctival microbiota, with a shift towards over-representation of feline ocular surface pathogens. Although famciclovir may impact beta diversity of the feline conjunctival microbiota, absence of change in alpha diversity suggests minimal shift in individual cats.
Keywords: Antiviral drugs; metagenomics; microbiome; ocular disease; population health.