A complete understanding of the dynamics and function of cytosine modifications in mammalian biology is lacking. Central to achieving this understanding is the availability of techniques that permit sensitive and specific genome-wide mapping of DNA modifications in mammalian DNA. The last decade has seen the development of a vast arsenal of novel profiling approaches enabling epigeneticists to tackle research questions that were previously out of reach. Here, we review the techniques currently available for profiling DNA modifications in mammals, discuss their strengths and weaknesses, and speculate on the future direction of DNA modification profiling technologies.
Keywords: Bioinformatics; DNA methylation; Epigenomics; High-throughput sequencing; Omics.