An Exploratory Study on Sleep Procrastination: Bedtime vs. While-in-Bed Procrastination

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Aug 13;17(16):5892. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17165892.


Sleep Procrastination literature has focused on the behaviors individuals engage in before going to bed (Bedtime Procrastination) but not on the behaviors individuals engage in after going to bed (While-in-Bed Procrastination). The main goal of this study is to explore whether this While-in-Bed procrastination is a novel phenomenon that adds to the Sleep Procrastination literature. The study was conducted online with 400 high school students (Mage = 16.56; 139 males) recruited through personal contacts and social media. The Bedtime procrastination scale was adapted and validated for this sample, whereas the While-in-Bed Procrastination scale was developed for this study. Data show a low correlation (r = 0.158 **) between Bedtime and While-in-Bed Procrastination scales, suggesting that Sleep Procrastination may be composed of the two facets. Additionally, results showed that more Bedtime Procrastination was related to later waking time and later dinnertime hours, whereas more While-in-Bed Procrastination was linked to being male, later desired time to sleep, and earlier dinnertime hour. Findings indicate that solely assessing Bedtime Procrastination as representing the procrastination of Sleep is limited and overlooks a significant part of this behavior. This exploratory study adds a new perspective to the literature by stressing the role of While-in-Bed Procrastination, thus opening new research pathways.

Keywords: adolescents; bedtime procrastination; sleep insufficiency; sleep procrastination; while-in-bed procrastination.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Motivation
  • Procrastination*
  • Sleep*
  • Social Media*
  • Students