Chemical Analysis of Minor Bioactive Components and Cannabidiolic Acid in Commercial Hemp Seed Oil

Molecules. 2020 Aug 14;25(16):3710. doi: 10.3390/molecules25163710.


Although hemp seed (HS) oil is characterized by more than 80% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), a very high ω-6-to-ω-3 ratio is not a popular commodity. The aim of this work was to provide useful data about the bioactive components and cannabidiolic acid content in thirteen different commercial hemp seed oils. The investigated HS oils showed a good ω-6/ω-3 ratio, ranging from 1.71 to 2.27, massively differed in their chlorophylls (0.041-2.64 µg/g) and carotenoids contents (0.29-1.73 µg/g), as well as in total phenols (22.1-160.8 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE)/g) and tocopherols (3.47-13.25 mg/100 g). Since the high content of PUFAs in HS oils, photo-oxidative stability was investigated by determining the Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) assay and extinction coefficient K232 and K270 after the photo-oxidative test. The percentage of increase in K232 and K270 ranged from 1.2 to 8.5% and from 3.7 to 26.0%, respectively, indicating good oxidative stability, but TBARS showed a 1.5- to 2.5-fold increase in oxidative behavior when compared to the initial values. Therefore, the diversity in bioactive compounds in HS oils, and their high nutritional value, suggest the need for a disciplinary booklet that well defines agronomic and post-harvest management conditions for achieving a good food objective.

Keywords: bioactive compounds; cannabidiolic acid; carotenoids; chlorophylls; hemp seed oil; polyphenols; tocopherols; ω-6/ω-3 ratio.

MeSH terms

  • Cannabinoids / analysis*
  • Cannabinoids / chemistry*
  • Cannabis / chemistry*
  • Carotenoids / analysis
  • Fatty Acids / analysis
  • Fatty Acids, Unsaturated / analysis
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Phenols / analysis
  • Plant Oils / chemistry*
  • Seeds / chemistry*
  • Tocopherols / analysis


  • Cannabinoids
  • Fatty Acids
  • Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
  • Phenols
  • Plant Oils
  • Carotenoids
  • cannabidiolic acid
  • Tocopherols