Histamine Intolerance: The Current State of the Art

Biomolecules. 2020 Aug 14;10(8):1181. doi: 10.3390/biom10081181.


Histamine intolerance, also referred to as enteral histaminosis or sensitivity to dietary histamine, is a disorder associated with an impaired ability to metabolize ingested histamine that was described at the beginning of the 21st century. Although interest in histamine intolerance has considerably grown in recent years, more scientific evidence is still required to help define, diagnose and clinically manage this condition. This article will provide an updated review on histamine intolerance, mainly focusing on its etiology and the existing diagnostic and treatment strategies. In this work, a glance on histamine intoxication will also be provided, as well as the analysis of some uncertainties historically associated to histamine intoxication outbreaks that may be better explained by the existence of interindividual susceptibility to ingested histamine.

Keywords: diamine oxidase (DAO); food intolerance; food supplement; histamine; histamine intolerance; histamine intoxication; histaminosis; low-histamine diet.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • D-Amino-Acid Oxidase / deficiency
  • D-Amino-Acid Oxidase / genetics*
  • Disease Management
  • Down-Regulation
  • Food Intolerance / chemically induced
  • Food Intolerance / diagnosis*
  • Food Intolerance / diet therapy*
  • Food Intolerance / genetics
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Histamine / toxicity*
  • Humans
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide


  • Histamine
  • DAO protein, human
  • D-Amino-Acid Oxidase