Relative Frequency of Paradoxical Growth and Trailing Effect with Caspofungin, Micafungin, Anidulafungin, and the Novel Echinocandin Rezafungin against Candida Species

J Fungi (Basel). 2020 Aug 17;6(3):136. doi: 10.3390/jof6030136.


Rezafungin is a next-generation echinocandin that has favorable pharmacokinetic properties. We compared the occurrence of paradoxical growth (PG) and trailing effect (TE) characteristics to echinocadins with rezafungin, caspofungin, micafungin and anidulafungin using 365 clinical Candida isolates belonging to 13 species. MICs were determined by BMD method according to CLSI (M27 Ed4). Disconnected growth (PG plus TE) was most frequent with caspofungin (49.6%), followed by anidulafungin (33.7%), micafungin (25.7%), while it was least frequent with rezafungin (16.9%). PG was relatively common in the case of caspofungin (30.1%) but was rare in the case of rezafungin (3.0%). C. tropicalis, C. albicans, C. orthopsilosis and C. inconspicua exhibited PG most frequently with caspofungin, micafungin or anidulafungin. PG never occurred in the case of C. krusei isolates. Against C. tropicalis and C. albicans, echinocandins frequently showed PG after 24 h followed by TE after 48 h. All four echinocandins exhibited TE for the majority of C. auris and C. dubliniensis isolates. Disconnected growth was common among Candida species and was echinocandin- and species-dependent. In contrast to earlier echinocandins, PG was infrequently found with rezafungin.

Keywords: C. auris; Candida; echinocandin; paradoxical growth; rezafungin; trailing effect.