Secondary Metabolites and Antioxidant Activity of the Solid-State Fermentation in Apple ( Pirus malus L.) and Agave Mezcalero ( Agave angustifolia H.) Bagasse

J Fungi (Basel). 2020 Aug 18;6(3):137. doi: 10.3390/jof6030137.

Abstract

Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is used in enzyme and antibiotic production, bioethanol and biodiesel as an alternative energy source, biosurfactants with environmental goals, and the production of organic acids and bioactive compounds. The present project determined the quantity of secondary metabolites and the antioxidant activity of the extracts obtained by the solid-state fermentation of apple and agave mezcalero bagasse over 28 days, inoculated with the Pleurotus ostreatus strain. The extraction was carried out with three solvents: acetone and water (80:20 v/v), 100% methanol and 100% water. The results showed a higher presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, total triterpenes and antioxidant activity in the apple bagasse from the SSF on day 21 in the extract of acetone and water (80:20 v/v), 100% methanol and aqueous; while the agave bagasse showed a significant presence of phenolic compounds and flavonoids only in the aqueous extract. In conclusion, the presence of secondary metabolites exhibiting antioxidant activities from the solid-state fermentation in the residues of the cider and mezcal industry is an alternative use for wasted raw material, plus, it reduces the pollution generated from the agroindustrial residues.

Keywords: Pleurotus ostreatus; agave mezcalero bagasse; apple bagasse; secondary metabolites; solid-state fermentation.