Graph Eigen Decomposition-Based Feature-Selection Method for Epileptic Seizure Detection Using Electroencephalography

Sensors (Basel). 2020 Aug 18;20(16):4639. doi: 10.3390/s20164639.

Abstract

Epileptic seizure is a sudden alteration of behavior owing to a temporary change in the electrical functioning of the brain. There is an urgent demand for an automatic epilepsy detection system using electroencephalography (EEG) for clinical application. In this paper, the EEG signal is divided into short time frames. Discrete wavelet transform is used to decompose each frame into a number of subbands. Different entropies as well as a group of features with which to characterize the spike events are extracted from each subband signal of an EEG frame. The features extracted from individual subbands are concatenated, yielding a high-dimensional feature vector. A discriminative subset of features is selected from the feature vector using a graph eigen decomposition (GED)-based approach. Thus, the reduced number of features obtained is effective for differentiating the underlying characteristics of EEG signals that indicate seizure events and those that indicate nonseizure events. The GED method ranks the features according to their contribution to correct classification. The selected features are used to classify seizure and nonseizure EEG signals using a feedforward neural network (FfNN). The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by conducting various experiments with a standard dataset obtained from the University of Bonn. The experimental results show that the proposed seizure-detection scheme achieves a classification accuracy of 99.55%, which is higher than that of state-of-the-art methods. The efficiency of FfNN is compared with linear discriminant analysis and support vector machine classifiers, which have classification accuracies of 98.72% and 99.39%, respectively. Hence, the proposed method is confirmed as a potential marker for EEG-based seizure detection.

Keywords: discrete wavelet transform; electroencephalography; epilepsy; feature selection; seizure.