Cyclic Di-adenosine Monophosphate Regulates Metabolism and Growth in the Oral Commensal Streptococcus mitis

Microorganisms. 2020 Aug 20;8(9):1269. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms8091269.


Cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) has emerged as an important bacterial signaling molecule that functions both as an intracellular second messenger in bacterial cells and an extracellular ligand involved in bacteria-host cross-talk. In this study, we identify and characterize proteins involved in controlling the c-di-AMP concentration in the oral commensal and opportunistic pathogen Streptococcusmitis (S. mitis). We identified three known types of c-di-AMP turnover proteins in the genome of S. mitis CCUG31611: a CdaA-type diadenylate cyclase as well as GdpP-, and DhhP-type phosphodiesterases. Biochemical analyses of purified proteins demonstrated that CdaA synthesizes c-di-AMP from ATP whereas both phosphodiesterases can utilize c-di-AMP as well as the intermediary metabolite of c-di-AMP hydrolysis 5'-phosphadenylyl-adenosine (pApA) as substrate to generate AMP, albeit at different catalytic efficiency. Using deletion mutants of each of the genes encoding c-di-AMP turnover proteins, we show by high resolution MS/MS that the intracellular concentration of c-di-AMP is increased in deletion mutants of the phosphodiesterases and non-detectable in the cdaA-mutant. We also detected pApA in mutants of the DhhP-type phosphodiesterase. Low and high levels of c-di-AMP were associated with longer and shorter chains of S. mitis, respectively indicating a role in regulation of cell division. The deletion mutant of the DhhP-type phosphodiesterase displayed slow growth and reduced rate of glucose metabolism.

Keywords: Streptococcus mitis; c-di-AMP; diadenylate cyclase; growth; metabolism; phosphodiesterase.