A systemic review on tuberculosis

Indian J Tuberc. 2020 Jul;67(3):295-311. doi: 10.1016/j.ijtb.2020.02.005. Epub 2020 Feb 28.


Tuberculosis (TB), which is caused by bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, is one of the oldest diseases known to affect humans and a major cause of death worldwide. Tuberculosis continues to be a huge peril disease against the human population and according to WHO, tuberculosis is a major killer of the human population after HIV/AIDS. Tuberculosis is highly prevalent among the low socioeconomic section of the population and marginalized sections of the community. In India, National strategic plan (2017-2025) has a national goal of elimination of tuberculosis by 2025. It requires increased awareness and understanding of Tuberculosis. In this review article history, taxonomy, epidemiology, histology, immunology, pathogenesis and clinical features of both pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) has been discussed. A great length of detailed information regarding diagnostic modalities has been explained along with diagnostic algorithm for PTB and EPTB. Treatment regimen for sensitive, drug resistant and extensive drug resistant tuberculosis has been summarized along with newer drugs recommended for multi drug resistant tuberculosis. This review article has been written after extensive literature study in view of better understanding and to increase awareness regarding tuberculosis, as a sincere effort that will help eliminate tuberculosis off the face of the earth in near future.

Keywords: Immunology; Tuberculosis diagnosis; Tuberculosis pathogenesis; Tuberculosis treatment.

Publication types

  • Historical Article
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Culture Techniques
  • Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis
  • History, 15th Century
  • History, 16th Century
  • History, 17th Century
  • History, 18th Century
  • History, 19th Century
  • History, 20th Century
  • History, Ancient
  • Humans
  • Interferon-gamma Release Tests
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Tuberculin Test
  • Tuberculosis* / diagnosis
  • Tuberculosis* / epidemiology
  • Tuberculosis* / history
  • Tuberculosis* / immunology
  • Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant
  • Tuberculosis, Pulmonary* / diagnosis
  • Tuberculosis, Pulmonary* / epidemiology
  • Tuberculosis, Pulmonary* / history
  • Tuberculosis, Pulmonary* / immunology