Guidelines for Perioperative Care in Cytoreductive Surgery (CRS) with or without hyperthermic IntraPEritoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC): Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS®) Society Recommendations - Part II: Postoperative management and special considerations

Eur J Surg Oncol. 2020 Dec;46(12):2311-2323. doi: 10.1016/j.ejso.2020.08.006. Epub 2020 Aug 13.


Background: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) pathways have been shown to considerably reduce complications, length of stay and costs after most of surgical procedures by standardised application of best evidence-based perioperative care. The aim was to elaborate dedicated recommendations for cytoreductive surgery (CRS) ± hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in a two-part series of guidelines based on expert consensus. The present part II of the guidelines highlights postoperative management and special considerations.

Methods: The core group assembled a multidisciplinary panel of 24 experts involved in peritoneal surface malignancy surgery representing the fields of general surgery (n = 12), gynaecological surgery (n = 6), and anaesthesia (n = 6). Experts systematically reviewed and summarized the available evidence on 72 identified perioperative care items, following the GRADE (grading of recommendations, assessment, development, evaluation) system. Final consensus (defined as ≥50%, or ≥70% of weak/strong recommendations combined) was reached by a standardised 2-round Delphi process, regarding the strength of recommendations.

Results: Response rates were 100% for both Delphi rounds. Quality of evidence was evaluated high, moderate low and very low, for 15 (21%), 26 (36%), 29 (40%) and 2 items, respectively. Consensus was reached for 71/72(98.6%) items. Strong recommendations were defined for 37 items. No consensus could be reached regarding the preemptive use of fresh frozen plasma.

Conclusion: The present ERAS recommendations for CRS ± HIPEC are based on a standardised expert consensus process providing clinicians with valuable guidance. There is an urgent need to produce high quality studies for CRS ± HIPEC and to prospectively evaluate recommendations in clinical practice.

Keywords: Cytoreductive surgery; Enhanced recovery; Guidelines; HIPEC; Perioperative care.

Publication types

  • Practice Guideline

MeSH terms

  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Cytoreduction Surgical Procedures* / adverse effects
  • Cytoreduction Surgical Procedures* / standards
  • Delphi Technique
  • Enhanced Recovery After Surgery / standards*
  • Humans
  • Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy* / adverse effects
  • Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy* / standards
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / surgery
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Postoperative Care / standards*
  • Postoperative Complications / prevention & control
  • Postoperative Period