Management of posaconazole-induced pseudohyperaldosteronism

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2020 Aug 24;dkaa366. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkaa366. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Background: Posaconazole-induced pseudohyperaldosteronism (PIPH) has been associated with elevated posaconazole serum concentrations. Clinicians are faced with the difficult task of managing patients with PIPH while maintaining the efficacy of antifungal therapy. Commonly, modifications to posaconazole therapy are utilized in managing PIPH, including dosage reduction of posaconazole or switch to an alternative antifungal.

Objectives: To characterize the management of patients diagnosed with PIPH and their response to various therapeutic interventions.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 20 consecutive adult patients diagnosed with PIPH. Patient data collected included blood pressure, electrolytes, endocrine laboratory values and posaconazole serum concentrations collected before and after therapeutic intervention.

Results: Of 20 patients included, 17 patients (85%) underwent therapeutic modification, with posaconazole dose reduction (n = 11) as the most common change. Other modifications included discontinuation (n = 3), switch to an alternative antifungal (n = 2) and addition of spironolactone (n = 1). Clinical improvement (decrease in systolic blood pressure and increase in serum potassium) was observed in 9 of 17 patients (52.9%). An average decrease in systolic blood pressure of 7.1 mmHg and increase in serum potassium of 0.22 mmol/L was observed following therapeutic modification.

Conclusions: We report our experience with PIPH management, for which there is no universally effective strategy. We utilized a stepwise approach for management, starting with posaconazole dose reduction and repeat assessment of clinical and laboratory parameters. If resolution of PIPH is not achieved, an alternative triazole antifungal or the addition of an aldosterone antagonist are additional potential interventions. It is possible for PIPH to persist after therapeutic modification despite these interventions. Thus, early diagnosis and continuous monitoring is warranted.