Clinical and spermatological findings in male dogs with acquired infertility: A retrospective analysis

Andrologia. 2020 Dec;52(11):e13802. doi: 10.1111/and.13802. Epub 2020 Aug 24.


A variety of causative factors of infertility in male dogs has been reported. In this study, the results of clinical examination and semen evaluation of 61 infertile stud dogs are described. Infertility was defined as conception failure of at least three matings with different bitches. The dogs, belonged to various breeds, were 4-8 years old and had a history of prior normal fertility. The dogs were subjected to clinical examination including ultrasonography of the prostate and testes. The semen was evaluated using CASA and microscopically morphology and live-dead spermatozoa. In all dogs, the semen parameters were outside the reference range, and mostly oligoastheno-teratozoospermia was found. There were also three cases of azoospermia. Thirty dogs showed no clinical abnormalities of the genital organ and no signs of systemic diseases, and testicular degeneration was assumed as the possible cause of infertility. In 20 dogs, BPH was diagnosed. In three dogs, infertility was associated with hypothyroidism. Three dogs had a history of babesiosis, and one dog prolonged ketoconazole treatment. One case each of chronic prostatitis, prostatic adenocarcinoma, epididymitis and retrograde ejaculation was diagnosed. The cause of acquired infertility could not be identified in almost half of the dogs. In other, infertility was often associated with prostate diseases.

Keywords: acquired infertility; clinical diagnosis; dog; semen.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Dogs
  • Humans
  • Infertility, Male* / etiology
  • Infertility, Male* / veterinary
  • Male
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Semen
  • Semen Analysis / veterinary
  • Spermatozoa