Measuring hope during the COVID-19 outbreak in the Philippines: development and validation of the state locus-of-Hope scale short form in Filipino

Curr Psychol. 2020 Jun 25;1-10. doi: 10.1007/s12144-020-00887-x. Online ahead of print.


Various adaptations of the Dispositional Hope Scale have been validated and used for specific research and applied purposes. The Locus-of-Hope Scale was developed as a cultural adaptation that measures internal and external aspects of agency related to goal-pursuit that are typical in collectivist cultures. The scale has been used to account for variations in well-being-related factors in collectivist societies but still assumes that hope-related thoughts are dispositional. A State Locus-of-Hope Scale was developed to assess hope-related thinking concerning ongoing events and experience during the COVID-19 outbreak in the Philippines in March 2020. The 16-item scale in Filipino was adapted from a short version of Locus-of-Hope Scale. Using data from 3128 respondents, confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fit between the four-factor model (compared to one-factor and two-factor models), supporting the scale's structural validity. There was also good evidence for the subscales' convergent and discriminant validity. Preliminary evidence for construct criterion validity was demonstrated by examining associations with well-being and anxiety. The results indicate the viability of the State Locus-of-Hope scale for assessing temporal hope-related thoughts that can inform efforts to understand how individuals engage in goal-related processes and maintain well-being in specific personal and social situations.

Keywords: Anxiety; COVID-19; Hope theory; Locus-of-hope; Philippines; State hope.