Recent genome-wide studies have begun to identify gene variants, expression profiles, and regulators associated with neuroticism, anxiety disorders, and depression. We conducted a set of experimental cell culture studies of gene regulation by micro RNAs (miRNAs), based on genome-wide transcriptome, proteome, and miRNA expression data from twenty postmortem samples of lateral amygdala from donors with known neuroticism scores. Using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and TargetScan, we identified a list of mRNA-protein-miRNA sets whose expression patterns were consistent with miRNA-based translational repression, as a function of trait anxiety. Here, we focused on one gene from that list, which is of particular translational significance in Psychiatry: synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) is the binding site of the anticonvulsant drug levetiracetam ((S)-α-Ethyl-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidineacetamide), which has shown promise in anxiety disorder treatments. We confirmed that SV2A is associated with neuroticism or anxiety using an original GWAS of a community cohort (N = 1,706), and cross-referencing a published GWAS of multiple cohorts (Ns ranging from 340,569 to 390,278). Postmortem amygdala expression profiling implicated three putative regulatory miRNAs to target SV2A: miR-133a, miR-138, and miR-218. Moving from association to experimental causal testing in cell culture, we used a luciferase assay to demonstrate that miR-133a and miR-218, but not miR-138, significantly decreased relative luciferase activity from the SV2A dual-luciferase construct. In human neuroblastoma cells, transfection with miR-133a and miR-218 reduced both endogenous SV2A mRNA and protein levels, confirming miRNA targeting of the SV2A gene. This study illustrates the utility of combining postmortem gene expression data with GWAS to guide experimental cell culture assays examining gene regulatory mechanisms that may contribute to complex human traits. Identifying specific molecular mechanisms of gene regulation may be useful for future clinical applications in anxiety disorders or other forms of psychopathology.