Purpose: Radiotherapy (RT) is an effective treatment for localized gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas unresponsive to antibiotic therapy; however, irradiating the stomach can result in significant radiation to the heart, a risk factor for cardiac disease. We analyzed the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database to evaluate outcomes related to cardiac disease among patients treated with RT for stage I gastric MALT.
Materials and methods: We identified adult patients treated between 1993 and 2014. The relationship between treatment modality (RT, chemotherapy, combination, and no treatment) and overall survival (OS), mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-specific survival (MSS), non-mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-specific survival (non-MSS), and cardiac-specific survival (CSS) was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox proportional hazards analyses.
Results: A total of 2996 patients (median follow-up, 5.6 y) were analyzed: 27.5% had received RT alone, 12.1% chemotherapy alone, 3.9% chemoradiotherapy, and 56.5% no/unknown treatment (including antibiotic therapy). Compared with RT alone, patients who received chemotherapy alone exhibited worse OS (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.32-2.10; P<0.001) and MSS (HR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.36-3.23; P=0.001). Although CSS appeared worse in patients who received chemotherapy (HR: 1.56; 95% CI: 0.92-2.66; P=0.10), it was not statistically significant. When comparing orbital and gastric MALT patients, there was no significant difference in CSS (HR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.49-1.31; P=0.38).
Conclusions: RT improved survival among patients with stage I gastric MALT without increasing the risk of cardiac death. Those with gastric MALT exhibited similar CSS to those with orbital MALT. Although we cannot analyze nonfatal cardiac toxicity, these results suggest that, absent antibiotic therapy, RT should remain first-line treatment for early-stage gastric MALT.