The identification of high-risk groups of gastric (GC) and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PC) due to a hereditary basis could imply a benefit in the affected families by establishing personalized preventive strategies. We aimed at assessing the diagnostic yield of GC/PC hereditary syndromes in individuals evaluated based on specific clinical criteria. In total, 77 unrelated individuals (45 from GC group/32 from PC group) were recruited: 51 (66.2%) cancer diagnosis ≤60 years, 3 (4%) with personal history of GC/PC and other cancer and 23 (29.8%) due to family history. Immunohistochemical analysis of DNA mismatch repair proteins was performed in 38 (49.3%) available tumors, being pathological in one (2%) GC. A genetic analysis was performed if clinical criteria of hereditary syndrome were fulfilled, identifying a mutation in 10/22 (45.5%) families [7/16 (43.7%) with GC and 3/6 (50%) with PC] and 19 (24.7%) fulfilled criteria of familial cancer. Diagnosis of cancer <40 years and personal history of other cancers were independent risk factors of a hereditary syndrome [OR:11.3 (95%IC 1.9-67); p = 0.007 and OR:17.4 (95% IC 2.5-119.9); p = 0.004; respectively]. The selection of patients based on clinical criteria leads to high diagnostic yield, detecting a causative germline mutation in almost half of the cases; therefore, both meticulous genetic counseling and use of multi-gen panels is crucial.
Keywords: familial cancer; gastric cancer; genetic counselling; hereditary cancer; pancreatic cancer.