In recent years, cell therapy technologies have resulted in impressive results in hematologic malignancies. Treatment of solid tumors with chimeric antigen receptor T-cells (CAR-T) has been less successful. Solid tumors present challenges not encountered with hematologic cancers, including high intra-tumoral pressure and ineffective CAR-T trafficking to the site of disease. Novel delivery methods may enable CAR-T therapies for solid tumor malignancies. A patient with liver metastases secondary to pancreatic adenocarcinoma received CAR-T targeting carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Previously we reported that Pressure-Enabled Drug Delivery (PEDD) enhanced CAR-T delivery to liver metastases 5.2-fold. Three doses of anti-CEA CAR-T were regionally delivered via hepatic artery infusion (HAI) using PEDD technology to optimize the therapeutic index. Interleukin-2 was systemically delivered by continuous intravenous infusion to support CAR-T in vivo. HAI of anti-CEA CAR-T was not associated with any serious adverse events (SAEs) above grade 3 and there were no on-target/off-tumor SAEs. Following CAR-T treatment, positron emission tomography-CT demonstrated a complete metabolic response within the liver, which was durable and sustained for 13 months. The response was accompanied by normalization of serum tumor markers and an abundance of CAR+ cells found within post-treatment tumor specimens. The findings from this report exhibit biologic activity and safety of regionally infused CAR-T for an indication with limited immune-oncology success to date. Further studies will determine how HAI of CAR-T may be included in multidisciplinary treatment plans for patients with liver metastases. ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02850536.
Keywords: chimeric antigen; cytokines; immunotherapy; myeloid-derived suppressor cells; receptors; tumor microenvironment.
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