Hemodynamics mediated epigenetic regulators in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases

Mol Cell Biochem. 2021 Jan;476(1):125-143. doi: 10.1007/s11010-020-03890-9. Epub 2020 Aug 25.


Endothelium of blood vessels is continuously exposed to various hemodynamic forces. Flow-mediated epigenetic plasticity regulates vascular endothelial function. Recent studies have highlighted the significant role of mechanosensing-related epigenetics in localized endothelial dysfunction and the regional susceptibility for lesions in vascular diseases. In this article, we review the epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA de/methylation, histone modifications, as well as non-coding RNAs in promoting endothelial dysfunction in major arterial and venous diseases, consequent to hemodynamic alterations. We also discuss the current challenges and future prospects for the use of mechanoepigenetic mediators as biomarkers of early stages of vascular diseases and dysregulated mechanosensing-related epigenetic regulators as therapeutic targets in various vascular diseases.

Keywords: Atherosclerosis; Endothelial cell; Epigenetics; Hemodynamics; Mechanosensor; Venous disease.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Atherosclerosis / metabolism
  • Biomarkers / metabolism
  • DNA Methylation
  • Endothelial Cells / pathology
  • Endothelium, Vascular / metabolism
  • Epigenesis, Genetic*
  • Hemodynamics*
  • Humans
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary / genetics
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational
  • Vascular Diseases / genetics*
  • Vascular Diseases / metabolism*


  • Biomarkers