The administration of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors to nonhuman primates (NHP) via the blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can lead to dorsal root ganglion (DRG) pathology. The pathology is minimal to moderate in most cases; clinically silent in affected animals; and characterized by mononuclear cell infiltrates, neuronal degeneration, and secondary axonopathy of central and peripheral axons on histopathological analysis. We aggregated data from 33 nonclinical studies in 256 NHP and performed a meta-analysis of the severity of DRG pathology to compare different routes of administration, dose, time course, study conduct, age of the animals, sex, capsid, promoter, capsid purification method, and transgene. DRG pathology was observed in 83% of NHP that were administered AAV through the CSF, and 32% of NHP that received an intravenous (IV) injection. We show that dose and age at injection significantly affected the severity whereas sex had no impact. DRG pathology was minimal at acute time points (i.e., <14 days), similar from one to 5 months post-injection, and was less severe after 6 months. Vector purification method had no impact, and all capsids and promoters that we tested resulted in some DRG pathology. The data presented here from five different capsids, five different promoters, and 20 different transgenes suggest that DRG pathology is almost universal after AAV gene therapy in nonclinical studies using NHP. None of the animals receiving a therapeutic transgene displayed any clinical signs. Incorporation of sensitive techniques such as nerve-conduction velocity testing can show alterations in a minority of animals that correlate with the severity of peripheral nerve axonopathy. Monitoring sensory neuropathies in human central nervous system and high-dose IV clinical studies seems prudent to determine the functional consequences of DRG pathology.
Keywords: AAV; axonopathy; dorsal root ganglion; nonhuman primate; toxicity.