The distribution of the circumsporozoite protein within developing Plasmodium malariae oocysts and salivary gland sporozoites was examined by immunoelectron microscopy using protein A-gold and a monoclonal antibody specific for the CS protein of P. malariae. Gold particles were found along the capsule of immature oocysts but rarely within the cytoplasm. Gold label was detected on the inner surface of peripheral vacuoles during oocyst maturation and the plasma membrane of the sporoblast. Salivary gland sporozoites and budding sporozoites in mature oocysts were labeled uniformly on the outer surface of their plasma membranes. The surface of sporozoites that ruptured into midgut epithelial cells were entirely covered with gold particles. No label was seen on the surface of sporozoites which ruptured into the midgut lumen. In addition, a rabbit polyclonal antibody against repeat a region of P. brasilianum CS protein reacted with P. malariae sporozoites.