Newly identified Gon4l/Udu-interacting proteins implicate novel functions

Sci Rep. 2020 Aug 26;10(1):14213. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-70855-9.


Mutations of the Gon4l/udu gene in different organisms give rise to diverse phenotypes. Although the effects of Gon4l/Udu in transcriptional regulation have been demonstrated, they cannot solely explain the observed characteristics among species. To further understand the function of Gon4l/Udu, we used yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screening to identify interacting proteins in zebrafish and mouse systems, confirmed the interactions by co-immunoprecipitation assay, and found four novel Gon4l-interacting proteins: BRCA1 associated protein-1 (Bap1), DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1), Tho complex 1 (Thoc1, also known as Tho1 or HPR1), and Cryptochrome circadian regulator 3a (Cry3a). Furthermore, all known Gon4l/Udu-interacting proteins-as found in this study, in previous reports, and in online resources-were investigated by Phenotype Enrichment Analysis. The most enriched phenotypes identified include increased embryonic tissue cell apoptosis, embryonic lethality, increased T cell derived lymphoma incidence, decreased cell proliferation, chromosome instability, and abnormal dopamine level, characteristics that largely resemble those observed in reported Gon4l/udu mutant animals. Similar to the expression pattern of udu, those of bap1, dnmt1, thoc1, and cry3a are also found in the brain region and other tissues. Thus, these findings indicate novel mechanisms of Gon4l/Udu in regulating CpG methylation, histone expression/modification, DNA repair/genomic stability, and RNA binding/processing/export.