Objectives: The prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) in children is growing, but its relation to other autoimmune disorders that coexist since the onset of diabetes is not recognized. The objective of this study was to assess the incidence of T1D and the prevalence of autoimmune illnesses additionally coexisting since the diabetes mellitus onset in children during a period of 9 years' observation. Methods: In this retrospective study, the incidence rate (IR) of the T1D was calculated as the total number of all cases that were newly diagnosed per 100,000 population people between 0 and 18 years of age. The selected age groups (0-4, 5-9, 10-14, and 15-18 years) were examined, respectively. The studied group included 493 children (264 [53.55%] boys) between 0 and 18 years old newly diagnosed with T1D in one of the Polish centers in the years 2010-2018. Other autoimmune illnesses diagnoses were obtained from medical records taken from the first hospital treatment, when T1D was recognized. Results: The annual standardized IR of T1D increased from 19.2/100,000 in year 2010 to 31.7/100,000 in 2018 (1.7-fold over 9 years' observation), with an increase in the incidence rate ratio (IRR) by 4% per year. The highest growth in IR was recorded in 5- to 9-year-olds (from 19.61 in 2010 to 43.45 in 2018). In 61 (12.4%) of the studied group, at least one additional autoimmune disease was diagnosed. The prevalence doubled from 10.4% in the year 2010 to 20.8% in the year 2018. Autoimmune thyroid illnesses were found in 37 children (7.5%); their incidence increased from 6.3% to almost 2-fold, 12.5%, in 2018. In 26 children (5.3%), celiac disease was recognized; the prevalence increased from 4.2 to 9.8% in the study period. The prevalence of additional autoimmune thyroid disease was higher in glutamic acid decarboxylase-positive antibodies (χ2 = 3.4, p = 0.04) patients, the oldest age group (15-18 years) (χ2 =7.1, p = 0.06), and in girls (χ2 =7.1, p = 0.007). Conclusions:The standardized IR of T1D in children increased 1.7-fold over the 9-year observation period, and IRR increased 4% per year. Additional autoimmunity represents a significant comorbidity in patients with new-onset T1D. The number of children diagnosed with additional autoimmune diseases that accompany T1D is rapidly growing in all age groups throughout recent years.
Keywords: autoimmune thyroid diseases; celiac disease; children; diabetes type 1; epidemiology.
Copyright © 2020 Głowińska-Olszewska, Szabłowski, Panas, Żoła̧dek, Jamiołkowska-Sztabkowska, Milewska, Kadłubiska, Polkowska, Łuczyński and Bossowski.