Prevalence of ocular surface disease symptoms in peri- and postmenopausal women

Menopause. 2020 Sep;27(9):993-998. doi: 10.1097/GME.0000000000001565.


Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of ocular surface disease (OSD) symptoms and the possible existence of differences between peri- and postmenopausal women, based on the result of the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI).

Methods: A transversal observational study based on the results of an e-mail survey between October 2018 and January 2019 involving 1,947 women. The study was performed on a group of peri- and postmenopausal women aged between 45 and 79 years. The personal data in the survey included age, menopause status, age at menopause, prediagnosis of dry eye, undergoing dry eye treatment, and the OSDI questionnaire. Student's t test and Chi squared test were used to compare means or percentages between results on the survey and peri- and postmenopausal women. Finally, a univariate logistic regression was carried out to estimate the prevalence of OSD. The OSDI score is assessed on a scale of 0 to 100.

Results: The mean age of the entire sample was 54.2 ± 6.8 years, with a mean age at menopause of 49.45 ± 4.02 years. The mean OSDI score was 29.2 ± 19.4, considered as moderate dry eye. The global prevalence of OSD symptoms was 64% (1,247/1,947), which increased significantly in postmenopausal women, being 66.8% (820/1,228) (P = 0.001). The probability of OSD symptoms prevalence increases with age (odds ratio: 1.02; 95% CI [1.01-1.03]). The greater the age at menopause, the lower the probability of OSD symptoms prevalence (odds ratio: 0.96 95% CI [0.93-0.99]).

Conclusions: Sixty-four percent of the pre- and postmenopausal women studied had OSD symptoms. There was a correlation between OSD symptoms and age, postmenopause, and earlier age at menopause, which was associated with an increased prevalence. : Video Summary:

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Dry Eye Syndromes* / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Menopause
  • Middle Aged
  • Postmenopause*
  • Prevalence
  • Surveys and Questionnaires