Importance: Predialysis nephrology care is associated with better survival among patients with end-stage kidney disease.
Objective: To examine national trends in racial/ethnic disparities in receipt of predialysis nephrology care at least 1 year before dialysis initiation in the United States from 2005 to 2015.
Design, setting, and participants: This national registry study assessed US registry data of 1 000 390 adults in the US Renal Data System who initiated maintenance dialysis treatment from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2015, in multiple cross-sectional analyses. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine national trends in racial/ethnic disparities in receipt of predialysis nephrology care with adjustments for potential confounders. Data were analyzed April 17, 2020.
Exposure: Race/ethnicity of the patients.
Main outcomes and measures: Receipt of at least 12 months of predialysis nephrology care as determined by clinician-based documentation on the End Stage Renal Disease Medical Evidence Report Form CMS 2728.
Results: Among 1 000 390 adults (57.2% male; 54.6% White, 27.8% Black, 14.0% Hispanic, and 3.6% Asian; mean [SD] age, 62.4 [15.6] years) who initiated maintenance dialysis in the United States from 2005 to 2015, 310 743 (31.1%) received at least 12 months of predialysis nephrology care. In 2005 to 2007, compared with White adults, the adjusted odds ratio for receipt of at least 12 months of predialysis nephrology care was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.80-0.84) among Black adults, 0.67 (95% CI, 0.65-0.69) among Hispanic adults, and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.80-0.89) among Asian adults; in 2014 to 2015, the adjusted odds ratio was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.74-0.78) among Black adults, 0.61 (95% CI, 0.60-0.63) among Hispanic adults, and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.86-0.95) among Asian adults.
Conclusions and relevance: In this cross-sectional study of more than 1 million US adults with end-stage kidney disease, racial and ethnic disparities in predialysis nephrology care did not substantially improve from 2005 to 2015. Study findings suggest that national strategies to address racial/ethnic disparities in predialysis nephrology care are needed.