Background and aim: To conduct a systematic literature review and analyze the demographic/biochemical parameters and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and combined DKA/HHS (hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome).
Methods: PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Google Scholar databases were systematically searched till August 3, 2020 to identify studies reporting COVID-19 patients with DKA and combined DKA/HHS. A total of 19 articles reporting 110 patients met the eligibility criteria.
Results: Of the 110 patients, 91 (83%) patients had isolated DKA while 19 (17%) had DKA/HHS. The majority of the patients were male (63%) and belonged to black ethnicity (36%). The median age at presentation ranged from 45.5 to 59.0 years. Most of the patients (77%) had pre-existing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Only 10% of the patients had newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. The median blood glucose at presentation ranged from 486.0 to 568.5 mg/dl, being higher in patients with DKA/HHS compared to isolated DKA. The volume of fluid replaced in the first 24 h was higher in patients with DKA/HHS in contrast to patients with DKA alone. The in-hospital mortality rate was 45%, with higher mortality in the DKA/HHS group than in the isolated DKA group (67% vs. 29%). pH was lower in patients who had died compared to those who were discharged.
Conclusion: DKA in COVID-19 patients portends a poor prognosis with a mortality rate approaching 50%. Differentiating isolated DKA from combined DKA/HHS is essential as the latter represents nearly one-fifth of the DKA cases and tends to have higher mortality than DKA alone.
Keywords: COVID-19; Diabetic ketoacidosis; Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome; Subcutaneous insulin therapy.
Copyright © 2020 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.