One in every four deaths is due to cancer in Europe. In view of its increasing incidence, cancer became the leading cause of death and disease burden in Denmark, France, the Netherlands, and the UK. Without essential improvements in cancer prevention, an additional 775,000 cases of annual incidence have been prognosed until 2040. Between 1995 and 2018, the direct costs of cancer doubled from EUR 52 billion to EUR 103 billion in Europe, and per capita health spending on cancer increased by 86% from EUR 105 to EUR 195 in general, whereby Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Benelux, and France spend the most on cancer care compared to other European countries. In view of the consequent severe socio-economic burden on society, the paradigm change from a reactive to a predictive, preventive, and personalized medical approach in the overall cancer management is essential. Concepts of predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine (3PM) demonstrate a great potential to revise the above presented trends and to implement cost-effective healthcare that benefits the patient and society as a whole. At any stage, application of early and predictive diagnostics, targeted prevention, and personalization of medical services are basic pillars making 3PM particularly attractive for the patients as well as ethical and cost-effective healthcare. Optimal 3PM approach requires novel instruments such as well-designed liquid biopsy application. This review article highlights current achievements and details liquid biopsy approaches specifically in cancer management. 3PM-relevant expert recommendations are provided.
Keywords: blood; cancer; cell-free circulating nucleic acids; circulating tumor cells (CTC); liquid biopsy; predictive preventive personalized medicine (PPPM/3PM); saliva; tear fluid; test sensitivity specificity; urine.