Maternal and infant outcomes in sarcoidosis pregnancy: a Swedish population-based cohort study of first births

Respir Res. 2020 Aug 27;21(1):225. doi: 10.1186/s12931-020-01493-y.

Abstract

Background: It is unclear whether sarcoidosis, a multisystem inflammatory disease, is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We aimed to assess the risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes in sarcoidosis pregnancies, focused on first births.

Methods: Using a population-based cohort study design and Swedish national registers (2002-2013), we identified 182 singleton first pregnancies in the Medical Birth Register with at least two maternal ICD-coded sarcoidosis visits prior to pregnancy in the National Patient Register. Modified Poisson regression models estimated relative risks (RR) of adverse outcomes in sarcoidosis pregnancies compared to the general population adjusted for maternal age at delivery, calendar year and educational level. Some models were additionally adjusted for maternal body mass index and smoking status.

Results: The prevalence of pre-existing diabetes and hypertension was higher in mothers with sarcoidosis than those without sarcoidosis. Mothers with sarcoidosis had an increased risk of preeclampsia/eclampsia (RR 1.6; 95%CI 1.0, 2.6) and cesarean delivery (RR 1.3; 95%CI 1.0, 1.6). There were < 5 stillbirths and cases of infection and no cases of placental abruption, venous thromboembolism, cardiac arrest or maternal death. Newborns of first-time mothers with sarcoidosis had a 70% increased risk of preterm birth (RR 1.7; 95%CI 1.1, 2.5). There was an increased risk of birth defects (RR 1.6; 95%CI 0.9, 2.8) the majority of which were non-cardiac.

Conclusions: Sarcoidosis is associated with increased risks for preeclampsia/eclampsia, cesarean delivery, preterm birth and some birth defects. Awareness of these conditions may prevent possible pregnancy complications in mothers with sarcoidosis and their newborns.

Keywords: Birth defect; Cesarean delivery; Infant; Preeclampsia; Pregnancy; Preterm birth; Sarcoidosis.

MeSH terms

  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Population Surveillance* / methods
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications / diagnosis*
  • Pregnancy Complications / epidemiology*
  • Pregnancy Outcome / epidemiology*
  • Registries
  • Sarcoidosis / diagnosis*
  • Sarcoidosis / epidemiology*
  • Sweden / epidemiology