Sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus

Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2020 Oct;16(10):556-577. doi: 10.1038/s41574-020-0392-2. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Abstract

The management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is becoming increasingly complex. Sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) are the newest antidiabetic agents for T2DM. By targeting the kidney, they have a unique mechanism of action, which results in enhanced glucosuria, osmotic diuresis and natriuresis, thereby improving glucose control with a limited risk of hypoglycaemia and exerting additional positive effects such as weight loss and the lowering of blood pressure. Several outcome studies with canagliflozin, dapagliflozin or empagliflozin reported a statistically significant reduction in major cardiovascular events, hospitalization for heart failure and progression to advanced renal disease in patients with T2DM who have established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, several cardiovascular risk factors, albuminuric mild to moderate chronic kidney disease or heart failure. Current guidelines proposed a new paradigm in the management of T2DM, with a preferential place for SGLT2is, after metformin, in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, heart failure and progressive kidney disease. Ongoing trials might extend the therapeutic potential of SGLT2is in patients with, but also without, T2DM. This Review provides an update of the current knowledge on SGLT2is, moving from their use as glucose-lowering medications to their new positioning as cardiovascular and renal protective agents.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardiotonic Agents / pharmacology
  • Cardiotonic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacology
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / etiology
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / prevention & control*
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Treatment Outcome

Substances

  • Cardiotonic Agents
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors