Angioleiomyoma of the pulmonary artery: a case report and literature review

J Cardiothorac Surg. 2020 Aug 28;15(1):230. doi: 10.1186/s13019-020-01275-z.


Background: Angioleiomyoma of the pulmonary artery is rare in the literature and few studies have been reported. Here we present a rare case of angioleiomyoma arising from the pulmonary artery in a young patient.

Case presentation: A 27-year-old male patient presented to our clinic due to the incidental finding of a nodule in the right lower lobe of the lung, which was unchanged from the prior year. Preoperative CT scans showed a well-demarcated nodule of soft tissue density penetrated by the basal branch of the right anterior basilar artery (RA8b). Single-port video-assisted RS8 segmentectomy was performed under the guidance of preoperative 3-dimensional reconstruction for histologic confirmation of the tumour. The tumour appeared as a solid tumour of a tube-like structure with vascular endothelium, composed of spindle-shaped smooth muscle cells lacking nuclear atypia and homogenous red-dye substances. The spindle cells were positive for immunostaining for smooth muscle actin (SMA), desmin and Ki-67 and were negative for immunostaining for Dog-1, HMB45, and Melan-A. A pathological diagnosis of primary angioleiomyoma of the pulmonary artery was finally made.

Conclusions: This report is a reminder for thoracic surgeons that angioleiomyoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of lung neoplasms, especially for the mass of soft tissue density penetrated by pulmonary blood vessels shown by CT. Awareness of this rare entity should potentially prevent underdiagnosis and improper surgical treatment.

Keywords: Angioleiomyoma; Case report; Differential diagnosis; Lung neoplasm.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Angiomyoma / diagnostic imaging*
  • Angiomyoma / pathology
  • Angiomyoma / surgery
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Humans
  • Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Male
  • Pulmonary Artery / diagnostic imaging*
  • Pulmonary Artery / pathology
  • Pulmonary Artery / surgery
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Vascular Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging*
  • Vascular Neoplasms / pathology
  • Vascular Neoplasms / surgery