Background: Dietary patterns may affect muscle mass, strength, and function; hence, we evaluated the association of major dietary patterns in relation to muscle mass index (MMI) and muscle strength in middle-aged adults. We hypothesized that unhealthy dietary patterns are associated with reduced muscle mass and muscle strength.
Subjects: and methods: The present cross-sectional study recruited 270 adults (118 males and 152 females) aged between 18 and 75 years' old. Socio-demographic data, body composition and muscle strength were determined. MMI was calculated by total fat free mass (FFM) (kg)/height2 (m). Dietary intake was assessed using a 168-item validated food frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was conducted, and as a result, 3 factors were extracted. These factors were labeled as healthy, mixed and western dietary patterns.
Results: After control for potential confounders, there were a positive trend between tertiles of "healthy dietary pattern" and muscle strength (p = 0.03). Moreover, we found that those who were in the third tertile of "mixed dietary pattern" compared to those at the first tertile had no significant relationship with muscle strength (p = 0.42) and MMI (p = 0.36) even after controlling for potential confounders. In contrast, the adherence to the "Western dietary pattern" was associated with reduced MMI (p = 0.02).
Conclusion: Adherence to healthy dietary pattern might be associated with better muscle strength and greater adherence to Western pattern appears to reduce MMI.
Keywords: Cross-sectional study; Dietary pattern; Muscle mass; Muscle strength; Principal component analysis.
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