Background: Accidental hypothermia is a known predictor for worse outcomes in trauma patients, but has not been comprehensively assessed in a meta-analysis so far. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the impact of accidental hypothermia on mortality in trauma patients overall and patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) specifically.
Methods: This is a systematic review and meta-analysis using the Ovid Medline/PubMed database. Scientific articles reporting accidental hypothermia and its impact on outcomes in trauma patients were included in qualitative synthesis. Studies that compared the effect of hypothermia vs. normothermia at hospital admission on in-hospital mortality were included in two meta-analyses on (1) trauma patients overall and (2) patients with TBI specifically. Meta-analysis was performed using a Mantel-Haenszel random-effects model.
Results: Literature search revealed 264 articles. Of these, 14 studies published 1987-2018 were included in the qualitative synthesis. Seven studies qualified for meta-analysis on trauma patients overall and three studies for meta-analysis on patients with TBI specifically. Accidental hypothermia at admission was associated with significantly higher mortality both in trauma patients overall (OR 5.18 [95% CI 2.61-10.28]) and patients with TBI specifically (OR 2.38 [95% CI 1.53-3.69]).
Conclusions: In the current meta-analysis, accidental hypothermia was strongly associated with higher in-hospital mortality both in trauma patients overall and patients with TBI specifically. These findings underscore the importance of measures to avoid accidental hypothermia in the prehospital care of trauma patients.