Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is classified into 5 clinical subgroups: pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), PH due to left-sided heart disease, PH due to chronic lung disease, chronic thromboembolic PH (CTEPH), and PH with an unclear and/or multifactorial mechanisms. A range of underlying conditions can lead to these disorders. Overall, PH affects approximately 1% of the global population, and over half of patients with heart failure may be affected. Cardiologists are therefore likely to encounter PH in their practice. Routine tests in patients with symptoms and physical findings suggestive of PH include electrocardiography, chest radiography, and pulmonary function tests. Transthoracic echocardiography is used to estimate the probability of PH. All patients with suspected or confirmed PH, without confirmed left-sided heart or lung diseases, should have a ventilation-perfusion scan to exclude CTEPH. Right-sided heart catheterization is essential for accurate diagnosis and classification. All patients with PAH or CTEPH must be referred to a specialist center. Surgical pulmonary endarterectomy is the treatment of choice for eligible patients with CTEPH. Targeted treatments (phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, soluble guanylate cyclase stimulators, endothelin receptor antagonists, prostacyclin analogues, and prostacyclin receptor agonists) are licensed for patients with PAH. The soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator riociguat is the only licensed targeted therapy for patients with inoperable or persistent/recurrent CTEPH. Management of PH resulting from left-sided heart disease primarily involves treatment of the underlying condition.
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