As aspergillosis is a well-known complication of severe influenza, we suggest that SARS-CoV-2 might be a risk factor for invasive aspergillosis (IA). We report the case of an 87 year-old woman, with no history of immune deficit, admitted in our emergency room for severe respiratory distress. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis was confirmed by a SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on nasal swab. On day 14, pulmonary examination deteriorated with haemoptysis and a major increase of inflammatory response. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed nodules highly suggestive of IA. Aspergillus antigen was found highly positive in sputum and blood, as was Aspergillusspp PCR on serum. Sputum cultures remained negative for Aspergillus. This patient died rapidly from severe respiratory failure, despite the addition of voriconazole. Considering SARS-CoV-2 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as an acquired immunodeficiency, we report here a new case of "probable" IA based on clinical and biological arguments, in accordance with the last consensus definition of invasive fungal disease. On a routine basis, we have detected 30% of aspergillosis carriage (positive culture and antigen in tracheal secretions) in critically ill patients with COVID-19 in our centre. Further studies will have to determine whether sputum or tracheal secretions should be systematically screened for fungal investigations in intensive care unit (ICU) COVID-19 patients to early diagnose and treat aspergillosis.
Keywords: Antigen; Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19); Diagnosis; Invasive aspergillosis; Serology.
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