Background: The Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease (DAPA-CKD; NCT03036150) trial was designed to assess the effect of the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor dapagliflozin on kidney and cardiovascular events in participants with CKD with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D). This analysis reports the baseline characteristics of those recruited, comparing them with those enrolled in other trials.
Methods: In DAPA-CKD, 4304 participants with a urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR) ≥200 mg/g and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) between 25 and 75 mL/min/1.73 m2 were randomized to dapagliflozin 10 mg once daily or placebo. Mean eGFR was 43.1 mL/min/1.73 m2 and median UACR was 949 mg/g (108 mg/mmol).
Results: Overall, 2906 participants (68%) had a diagnosis of T2D and of these, 396 had CKD ascribed to a cause other than diabetes. The most common causes of CKD after diabetes (n = 2510) were ischaemic/hypertensive nephropathy (n = 687) and chronic glomerulonephritis (n = 695), of which immunoglobulin A nephropathy (n = 270) was the most common. A total of 4174 participants (97%) were receiving an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker, 1882 (43.7%) diuretics, 229 (5.3%) mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and 122 (2.8%) glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists. In contrast to the Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes with Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation (CREDENCE), the DAPA-CKD trial enrolled participants with CKD due to diabetes and to causes other than diabetes. The mean eGFR of participants in the DAPA-CKD trial was 13.1 mL/min/1.73 m2 lower than in CREDENCE, similar to that in the Finerenone in Reducing Kidney Failure and Disease Progression in DKD (FIDELIO-DKD) trial and the Study Of diabetic Nephropathy with AtRasentan (SONAR).
Conclusions: Participants with a wide range of underlying kidney diseases receiving renin-angiotensin system blocking therapy have been enrolled in the DAPA-CKD trial. The trial will examine the efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin in participants with CKD Stages 2-4 and increased albuminuria, with and without T2D.
Keywords: chronic kidney disease; dapagliflozin; randomized controlled clinical trial; sodium–glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor.
© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.