Classically, animal cells nucleate or form new microtubules off the perinuclear centrosome. In recent years, the Golgi outpost has emerged as a satellite organelle that can function as an acentrosomal microtubule-organizing center (MTOC), nucleating new microtubules at distances far from the nucleus or cell body. Golgi outposts can nucleate new microtubules in specialized cells with unique cytoarchitectures, including Drosophila neurons, mouse muscle cells, and rodent oligodendrocytes. This review compares and contrasts topics of functional relevance, including Golgi outpost heterogeneity, formation and transport, as well as regulation of microtubule polarity and branching. Golgi outposts have also been implicated in the pathology of diseases including muscular dystrophy, and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Since Golgi outposts are relatively understudied, many outstanding questions regarding their function and roles in disease remain.
Keywords: Golgi outpost; dendrite; microtubule; muscle; nucleation; oligodendrocyte.
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